Diabetes Mellitus, often shortened as Diabetes, is a medical condition in which the cells of the body find it difficult to absorb and utilize sugar or because there is inadequate secretion of insulin. This results in high level of sugar in the blood. The first signs are frequent urination known as polyuria, constant thirst – polydipsia and constant hunger – polyphagia.
There are three main types of Diabetes – Type 1 Diabetes, Type 2 Diabetes and Gestation Diabetes.
Type 1 Diabetes
Here, the body does not secrete insulin at all. Due to the fact that people usually develop it before the age of forty, it often referred to as either juvenile diabetes or early-onset diabetes. People hardly talk about this type of diabetes because it is not half as prevalent as type 2 diabetes. However, it is also dangerous. Patients of type 1 diabetes have to take insulin injection that will enhance absorption of sugar for the rest of their lives. This will in turn regulate the blood sugar level. They also have to follow a special diet as prescribed by their physician.
Type 2 Diabetes
For this type of diabetes, it is either the body secretes inadequate insulin or the cells in the body do not react to insulin. They are insulin resistance. This is the most prevalent type of diabetes. In fact, 9 out of every 10 cases of diabetes are type 2 diabetes.
To control this type of diabetes, you need to constantly monitor your blood sugar level, embark on a serious weight loss program, change your diet and do plenty of exercises. But since these measures only control it, they don’t cure it. It gradually gets worse as the cells of the body begin to grow old and weak and the immune system also becomes weaker with age.
The patient will eventually have to take insulin in form of tablets. The more obese you are, the higher your chances of developing type 2 diabetes. This is majorly because obesity makes the body secrete certain chemicals that weaken both metabolic and cardiovascular systems of the body.
Being obese is not the only factor that promotes type 2 diabetes. Not putting your body through regular physical activities can also put you on a high risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Eating the wrong food plays a major role too. You should watch what you eat.
This type of diabetes is the one that is common among pregnant women. Patients have a very high level of blood glucose and their body cannot produce enough insulin to utilize all the sugar. If this diabetes is not curbed or controlled, it can lead to complications during childbirth. It can make the baby bigger than normal and this can lead to caesarian section.
Once this diabetes is diagnosed, patients need to be put on blood-sugar controlling medications. Results of a recent research indicate that eating a lot of animal fat and cholesterol puts you on a high risk of developing this type of diabetes. Needless to say if you still plan to have babies, you should limit the amount of cholesterol and animal fat you consume.
To check whether you have diabetes or not, you need to go for any of the following three most reliable diabetes tests
The A1C test
If the result of this test is 6.5% or above, it means you already have diabetes. But if it is between 5.7% and 5.99%, it means you are already in prediabetes stage. This means that your blood glocuse level is already higher than normal but not high enough to be confirmed as diabetes. And if you are lucky enough to get less than 5.77%, this means that you are normal.
The Fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG) test
A result of above 126 mg/dl indicates full blown diabetes. But if your result is between 100 mg/dl and 125.99 mg/dl, you are already in the prediabetes stage. Suffice to say a less than 100mg/dl result means you are very okay.
The Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT)
When your result is less than 140 mg/dl, you are normal. If the result is between 140 and 199.9 mg/dl, you are in your prediabetes phase and if it is 200 mg/dl or above, you already have diabetes.
However, each of the three tests could give you an abnormal result. This indicates that the patient being tested has impaired glucose tolerance (IGT).
To control diabetes, you to change your diet to a low-sugar or no-sugar diet, engage in regular rigorous exercise, and proper weight loss program and most importantly, regular intake of insulin either as injection or as a supplement.
A badly controlled diabetes and an uncontrolled one can lead to some of the following medical conditions.
• Several eye diseases like cataracts, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy… etc
• Foot/leg problems like neuropathy and on rare cases, it could lead to gangrene which requires a quick amputation of the leg.
• The skin is not also spared. Diabetes renders the skin vulnerable to a lot of skin infections
• Different heart diseases that could hinder proper blood circulation to the heart and from the heart.
• Hypertension can also be caused by badly managed diabetes
• Hearing problems
• Kidney diseases
• Disease of the veins and arteries
• Erectile dysfunction in men or complete impotence
• Even wounds will take more time to heal up.
In conclusion, the biggest and saddest problem with diabetes is that it quickens death!!!
It is unfortunate that sometimes patient ask for quick death when the pains become unbearable. In reality, how would someone suffer some of the medical conditions above and not ask for death? Since diabetes lacks cure, it is often better to prevent it by eating right and putting your body through daily rigorous activities now.